What Is Endoscopy And Endosonography
Endoscopy is the technique where a physician examines inside the hollow organs with the help of a flexible steerable tube which has light and camera at the tip of the.The procedure is called gastroscopy when the stomach is examined, colonoscopy when the large bowel is examined, enteroscopy when the small bowel is examined.
Endoscopic ultrasonography scopes have an ultrasound probe mounted on to the tip of the scope this allows the physician to examine beyond the gastrointestinal lumen such that the examiner can get detailed views of the gastrointestinal wall and the neighbouring organs, for example pancreas is located right behind the stomach, small tumors located in this organ can be hardly seen with MRI or CT scanning, however with this technique it might be possible to detect tumors as small as a few milimeters and biopsy them if needed.
Endoscopic and endosonographic procedures are done under conscious sedation which is different then general anesthesia, although sleeping patients are breating on their own and responding to the commands of the physician. Patients are monitorized during the procedure i.e. their blood pressure, blood oxygen level and EKG are continuosly followed by the nurse and the physician.
Some patients do not prefer sedation, there is a special ultrathin endoscope at our unit which can passed through the nares into the esophagus and the stomach after only numbing the nasal mucosa and the throat with a local anesthetic spray. (Transnasal endoscopy).
Endoscopic and endosonographic procedures can be done for diagnostic procedures only or theraphy can be delivered through these scopes (Theraupetic or Interventional endoscopy) for example bleeding from an ulcer in the stomach can be stopped, or stones from the bile duct can be retrieved with ERCP, even early cancers can be taken out with a procedure called mucosectomy obviating the need for surgery. Complex theraupetic procedures are usualy done in the hospital.